Epistaxis (Nosebleed)

Epistaxis, or commonly a nosebleed, more commonly occur in children and the elderly. A nosebleed can be a dramatic event due to the quantity or blood loss, particularly in children. It is important to remain calm and if persistent seek urgent medical advice. Certain nasal saline sprays, barrier cream or humidifiers can help resolve epistaxis. However, sometimes bleeding from the nostril, nasal cavity or nasopharynx warrants medical attention and your general practitioner may refer persistent epistaxis to an ENT surgeon for assessment and cauterisation. Examination by an ENT surgeon usually requires the use of a rigid endoscope to identify the source of bleeding. Usually a patient can be treated in the consultation room with local anaesthetic and silver nitrate cauterisation. Worst cases may require a general anaesthetic and cauterisation.

Nasal Obstruction

Nasal Obstruction can include nasal valve collapse, deviated septum, enlarged adenoids, enlarged inferior turbinates can contribute to snoring. A consultation may involve spray with a nasal decongestant, spray with local anaesthetic and a nasopharyngoscopy.

Snoring and Sleep Apnoea

Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) include medical and surgical options to better help manage your OSA or snoring. Medical options include a formal sleep study to accurately diagnose the sleep disorder, nasal corticosteroid sprays, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, mandibular advancement splint, positional therapy and/or weight loss. The success depends upon how long and consistently you follow the recommended medical therapy. If medical management is unsuccessful, surgical procedure/s can help reduce the severity of the disorder. Surgical procedures which may improve nasal patency or breathing include a modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), coblation tongue channelling, inferior turbinate reduction and septoplasty. Surgery is not always a cure and follow-up surgery may be required in following years or decades.

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is swelling of the sinuses as a result of an infection. Sinusitis is common after a cold or the flu. Symptoms may include pain or tenderness around your cheeks eyes or forehead, green or yellow discharge from the nose, headache, toothache or a blocked nose. Seek a referral to an ENT specialist if your symptoms are severe, pain relief is ineffective, or you are having repeat episodes of sinusitis. An ENT specialist may also request a CT scan of the sinuses, radio-allergosorbent testing (RAST) or skin prick testing. There are various forms of medical treatment including nasal saline douching, intranasal corticosteroids or oral antibiotics. If a concerted effort is made by the patient with medical treatment and it fails, there are surgical options. Surgical options include functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) under a general anaesthetic.

Rhinosinusitis

Rhinosinusitis is inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The Royal Australasian College of GPs defines chronic rhinosinusitis as a condition with 12 weeks of consecutive symptoms. Symptoms can include facial pressure, pain, congestion, frontal headaches, feeling of fullness, nasal obstruction or blockage, nasal discharge or postnasal drip. An examination by an ENT may include the use of nasal decongestion spray prior to an otoscopy and endoscopy to obtain a detailed examination of the nasopharynx and post nasal space. You may also have a swab taken to determine histopathology to enable accurate medical treatment. Your ENT surgeon may also request a CT scan of the sinuses, radio-allergosorbent testing (RAST) or skin prick testing. There are various forms of medical treatment including nasal saline douching, intranasal corticosteroids or oral antibiotics. If a concerted effort is made by the patient with medical treatment and it fails, there are surgical options. Surgical options may include Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disorder and often coexists with asthma, sinus disease, eczema and conjunctivitis. It typically causes symptoms such as sneezing, itchiness, a blocked or runny nose. It involves inflammation of the inside of the nasal vault as a result of an allergen. Common allergens include dust, pollen, pet hair, dander or mould. Allergic rhinitis is divided into seasonal or perennial rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is your immune system triggering a response to an allergen which results in inflammation of the nasal mucosa and production of mucous. Allergen avoidance is often a first line of treatment. If your symptoms are persisting for more than 12 weeks and are adversely affecting your life such as your sleep, ability to exercise or performance at work or school. Your ENT surgeon may also request a CT scan of the sinuses, radio-allergosorbent testing (RAST) or skin prick testing. There are various forms of medical treatment including nasal saline douching, intranasal corticosteroids or oral antibiotics. If a concerted effort is made by the patient with medical treatment and it fails, there are surgical options.

Anosmia

Anosmia is the complete loss of smell. Studies suggest approximately 1 in 10,000 people are affected by congenital anosmia. Some of the symptoms include a thick foul smelling nasal discharge. Some of the causes of anosmia include nasal congestion from a cold allergy sinus infection, nasal polyps, blockages of the sinus nasal passages or trauma to the nose. Treatment of the underlying cause of the anosmia often results in an improvement in sense of smell for example, removal of nasal polyps or correction of an anatomical anomaly. It can often take several weeks to several months to regain a sense of smell. On the 4th of May 2020, the World Health Organisation added the loss of taste or smell to its list of COVID-19 symptoms.

Personal care, dedicated to resolutions.

Mackay Ear, Nose and Throat Specialists work closely with sleep study facilities and can also help with snoring and breathing problems including sleep apnoea.

Post operative care is a critical component of Mackay Ear, Nose and Throat Specialists’ service and all procedures and surgeries are followed up personally by our Specialists until they are satisfied the problem has been resolved.

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